Repeating question words in Chinese (place-holder question words)
Repeating question words are a really cool feature of Chinese grammar. Chinese question words are pretty interesting in general, as they function very logically and can be swapped in and out of sentences quite easily. One aspect of this is that you can repeat question words and use them as ‘place-holders’ for some sort of information.
I recently saw a little joke that demonstrates this quite well, but let's have a look at it here from a more grammatical perspective. This is a great feature of the language to know, as it makes you much more flexible in forming sentences etc.
The way it works is pretty simple. You use a question word once, and then when you use it again in the sentence, it refers back to the first one. Hence the term “place-holder question words”. Here's an example:
你点 什么 我吃 什么 。I'll order whatever you eat.
That's a really common thing to say in restaurants - you're letting the other person choose what to order and you'll eat whatever it is. Look how the sentence works in Chinese - literally “you order what I eat what”. This is a really nice feature to use because it's so elegant. You can express a lot of things this way.
Repeating question words: a bit like programming
This kind of sentence is slightly like programming or maths. The repeated question word is a bit like a variable - i__t holds one bit of information consistently wherever you put it. Or, it's a bit like _x _in an equation - “you order x I eat x".
Anyway, let's have look at some different question words being repeated as place-holders. You'll see that Chinese question words are very versatile and quite an elegant feature of the language.
谁 (shéi): whoever
You can very easily create sentences that would involve “whoever” in English by repeating 谁. Some examples:
谁 有钱 谁 有权。Whoever has money has power.
美国想打 谁 就打 谁 。America attacks whoever it wants.
谁 要走 谁 就走。Whoever wants to leave, leave.
Pretty cool, right? There's something very pleasing about those Chinese sentences. They seem neat and efficient, and very easy to understand once you know the repeating question words structure.
什么 (shénme): whatever
You can do the same thing with any question word you like. Let's have a look at some example sentences for 什么:
你要买 什么 ，那个商店有 什么 。Whatever you want to buy, that shop has it.
你有 什么 我买 什么 。I'll buy whatever you've got.
你要我做 什么 我就做 什么 ！I'll do whatever you want!
As you can see, you've just got to put in the relevant question word to hold the place of whatever thing you want, and the sentence works.
哪儿 (nǎr): wherever
Moving on, you can talk about places in this way using 哪儿. Some examples:
你去 哪儿 我就去 哪儿 。I'll go wherever you go.
哪儿 暖和咱们就去 哪儿 。Let's go wherever is warm.
你在 哪儿 藏起来我们就会在 哪儿 找到你。We'll find you wherever you hide.
怎么 (zěnme): however
Finally, you can talk about actions in this way using 怎么. Some examples:
他 怎么 做饭 怎么 好吃。However he cooks, it's good.
老板 怎么 说，我们 怎么 做。We'll do it however the boss says.
你想 怎么 做，我同意 怎么 做。I'll agree to do it however you think.
Note that we've gone through a few question words here, but you can do this with any question word in Chinese - there are loads more possibilities!
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