Chinese grammar 所 (suǒ) structural particle

The character 所 (suǒ) has a few different uses. In this article we’re looking at its use as a structural particle. Don’t worry if you don’t know what that term means - you can still use 所 correctly without understanding the jargon around it!

Nominal constructions with 所

A nominal construction is something that can be used as a noun. 所 is used to form one kind of nominal construction. The basic structure for this is:

所 [verb] 的

As you can see, 所 is placed right before the verb and 的 right after it. This creates a meaning like “that which is [verb]ed”. Here are some short examples for this structure:


suǒ chī de

that which is eaten


suǒ zhīdào de

that which is known


suǒ shīqù de

that which is lost

With this 所 construction, you can make compound terms that act as nouns in a sentence. We can expand the basic structure to include this:

所 [verb] 的 [noun]

Here are some examples of these compound nouns:


suǒ chīde cài

the food that is eaten


suǒ zhīdào de shìshí

the facts that are known


suǒ xuédào de zhīshì

the knowledge that is learned

Note how each of these is nominal. That is, they could all function as nouns in a sentence. Now let’s expand the structure a little bit more again:

[noun] 所 [verb] 的 [noun]

The first noun is the agent. This means it is doing the action of the verb. The second noun is the patient. This means it is receiving the action of the verb. Let’s have a look at some examples for this structure:


wǒ suǒ chī de cài

the food I eat


tāmen suǒ zhīdào de shìshí

the facts that they know


wǒmen suǒ xué dào de zhīshì

the knowledge we have learned

Again, each of these makes a ‘chunk’ that can work as a noun in a sentence. Let’s do just that and have a look at some full example sentences:


Wǒ suǒ chī de cài dōu shì zìrán de.

The food I eat is all natural.


Tāmen suǒ zhīdào de shìshí zhǐyǒu sān fēn zhī yī shì zhèngquè de.

Of the facts they know, only one third are correct.


Wǒmen suǒ zhīdào de hěn shǎo, ér wǒmen suǒ bù zhīdào de què hěnduō.

What we know is very little, and what we don't know is a lot.


Jūnrén suǒ shīqù de zìyóu tài duōle.

The freedom that soldiers give up is too great.

You might have noticed that in all the examples given here, 所 could be left out and it would still be grammatical. This shows that 所 is actually optional. It can be used to make something clearer or to add some formality, but it is not essential.

Some common compounds with 所

Whilst in theory any verb could be used with 所, there are a few that appear with it more commonly than others. These have almost become fixed vocabulary items. Some of the most common are:






that which is gained



"that which exists" (i.e. _all_)



"that which because of" (i.e. _so_)


suǒ xiǎng

"that which is thought" (i.e. _one's thoughts_)

Let’s have a look at some example sentences for these 所 compound words:


Zhè zhǒng suǒwèi de fānyì fēicháng bù hǎo.

This so-called "translation" is terrible.


Wǒ yào héjì yīxià xuéshēngmen suǒdé de zǒng fēnshù.

I'm going to total up the points gained by the students.


Wǒ suǒyǒu de yīfú dōu zāngle.

All of my clothes are dirty.


Zhè tái diànnǎo hěn jiù, suǒyǐ bǐjiào piányi.

This computer is old, so it's cheaper.


Cóng chángyuǎn lái kàn, yěxǔ jiéguǒ bǐ nǐ suǒ xiǎng de yāo hǎo.

It might turn out better than you think in the long run.

As usual, if you have any questions or suggestions, please share them in the comments below!

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